Geotechnical survey (Site investigation)
Geotechnical survey is a compulsory kind of engineering survey intended to elicit and consolidate information on soil structure, its characteristics, distribution and performance in situ in the construction site. In the process, hazardous geological phenomenon, ground water and cryogenic (cryosolic) buildups occurrence are defined, other engineering and geological conditions of the construction site are evaluated.
Geological works to be performed include:
- Collection and processing of historical engineering survey and study data;
- Field reconnaissance;
- Surface excavation;
- Geophysical investigation;
- Field soil survey;
- Groundwater study;
- Laboratory research of soils, ground water and level water;
- Soil survey of pedestals of foundations of the existing buildings and structures;
- Management of forecast of changes of engineering and geological conditions.
Engineering hydrometeorological survey
Engineering hydrometeorological survey means comprehensive study of rivers, water-storage basins, and other water bodies located in the survey area, climate patterns, hazardous hydrometeorological processes, changes of climatic and hydrological conditions.
Engineering hydrometeorological survey include:
- Study of hydrological characteristics of rivers, lakes, water-storage basins, bogs, rivulets;
- Анализ многолетних климатических и метеорологических характеристик;
- Рассмотрение неблагоприятных гидрометеорологических процессов и явлений;
- Assessment of effect of human economic activities on hydrological and climatic characteristics of the area.
Engineering and geodetic survey
Engineering and geodetic survey is a comprehensive package of works including collection, analysis and classifying of data on local topography: изыскания — комплекс работ по сбору, анализу и систематизации сведений о рельефе участка местности и ситуации местности - territory planning elements, adjacent infrastructure facilities and existing engineering services.
Geodetic works to be performed include:
- Development / renewal of large-scale topographical plans;
- Development of detailed underground utility system plans;
- Line facility route survey;
- Siting and lay out of construction facilities, line structures;
- Engineering and nautical survey;
- Tree survey;
- Executive geodetic surveying of completed facilities.
Environmental survey includes survey works intended to study the state of environmental specimen and their possible change through exposure to the projected facilities. In the process, conditions of soil, water resources, atmosphere and other natural constituents, industrial and socio-economic characteristics of the territory, are evaluated.
Environmental survey includes:
- Collection, processing and analysis of published and library materials/ data on environmental conditions, search of comparables operating under similar natural conditions;
- Traversing works followed by component-wise description of natural environments and landscapes in general, the state of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, sources and signs of pollution;
- Surface excavation to obtain environmental information;
- Geohydrological investigations;
- Soil survey;
- Geo-environmental testing and assessment of air pollution, soil pollution, ground water and level water contamination;
- Lab-based chemical-analytical treatment;
- Research and assessment of radiation situation;
- Soil vapour survey;
- Research and assessment of physical effects;
- Study of vegetable life and animal life;
- Social-economic studies;
- Sanitary-epidemiological research;
- Стационарные наблюдения (экологический мониторинг).